• सुखार्थी त्यजते विद्यं विध्यार्थी त्यजते सुखम्सु sखर्थीन: कुतॊ विद्या कुतॊ विध्यार्थीन: सुखम् ||
  • “Luxury people leave knowledge, but a student leaves Luxury No knowledge for one who seeks Luxury, No luxury for student”
  • न चोर हार्यं न च राज हार्यं न भात्रू भाज्यं न च भारकारि |व्ययं कृते वर्धत एव नित्यं विद्याधनं सर्वधनप्रधानम ||
  • Cannot be snatched away by thief, cannot be snatched away by king, Cannot be divided among brothers, Not heavy either If spent daily, it always keeps growing. The wealth of knowledge is the precious of wealth of all”

Protocol and its components




Protocol and its components

Protocol is a set of rules that governs data communication. It represents an agreement between the communicating devices. Without protocol two devices may be connected but cannot communicate. 

The key elements of protocol are:


  • Syntax: The term syntax refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented. 
  • Semantics: The word semantics refers how a particular pattern to be interpreted and what action is to be taken based on that interpretation.
  • Timing: Timing refers to when the data should be sent and how fast it should be sent?

The key functions that a protocol performs are:


  • Protocol Data Unit: It refers to the breaking of data in manageable units called Protocol Data Unit e.g. Segment, Packet, Frame etc.
  • Format of packet: Format of the packet like which group of bits in the packet constitute data, address, or control bits.
  • Sequencing: It refers to the breaking long message into smaller units. Sequencing is responsibility protocol. 
  • Routing of packets: Finding the most efficient path between source and destination is responsibility of protocol.
  • Flow control: It is responsibility of the protocol to prevent fast sender to overwhelm slow receiver. It ensures resource sharing and protection against traffic congestion by regulating the flow of data through the shared medium.
  • Error control: Protocol is responsible to provide method for error detection and correction.
  • Log related information: Some communication software has features to provide log of usage of network resources.
  • Defining priority: Different types of packets needs to have different priority while moving on the shared network e.g. network management packets needs to be given higher priority if some congestion occurs.
  • Creating and terminating a connection: Protocol defines the rules to create and terminate a connection between sender and receiver to communicate among each other.
  • Security of data:  Several communication software has features to prevent data from unauthorized access.

Related question

Question: Define protocol and its components. What functions can a protocol performs? [10 marks]