• सुखार्थी त्यजते विद्यं विध्यार्थी त्यजते सुखम्सु sखर्थीन: कुतॊ विद्या कुतॊ विध्यार्थीन: सुखम् ||
  • “Luxury people leave knowledge, but a student leaves Luxury No knowledge for one who seeks Luxury, No luxury for student”
  • न चोर हार्यं न च राज हार्यं न भात्रू भाज्यं न च भारकारि |व्ययं कृते वर्धत एव नित्यं विद्याधनं सर्वधनप्रधानम ||
  • Cannot be snatched away by thief, cannot be snatched away by king, Cannot be divided among brothers, Not heavy either If spent daily, it always keeps growing. The wealth of knowledge is the precious of wealth of all”

Data communication model




Data communication model

A data communications system has five components: Message, Medium, Sender, Receiver and Protocol 



  • Message: It is the information or data to be communicated. Various forms of messages are text, images, audio and video.
  • Transmission Medium: It is physical path by which the message travels from sender to receiver. It can be wired or wireless. For example twisted pair cable, coaxial cable, fiber optic cable and radio waves.
  • Sender: Sender is the device that sends messages e.g. workstation, computer, telephone handset, mobile, tab, webcam etc.
  • Receiver: Receiver is the device that receives messages e.g. workstation, computer, telephone handset, mobile, tab, television etc.
  • Protocol:  Protocol is a set of rules that governs data communications; it is an agreement (set of rules ) between communicating devices. The key elements of protocol are:
    1. Syntax
    2. Semantics
    3. Timing 

Related Questions

Question:  What are various components of a data communication model?  Explain all the components in detail. [5 marks]